November 2000


122 palestinians killed by israeli action this month
22 israelis killed by palestinian action this month


Israel starts a wave of assassinations against palestinian leaders, blocks a US proposal of posting international observers as a buffer in the West Bank and Gaza

On the 6th, Israel leaks reports that the U.S. has raised the idea of posting international observers as a buffer in the West Bank, Gaza. Barak denounces the proposal. Clinton states the U.S. will not endorse it if Israel is opposed. UNSC takes up the proposal, which is supported by the PA. US vows to block it, as long as Israel disapproves.

On the 9th Israel assassinates senior Fatah cmdr. Hussayn Ubayyat in Bayt Sahur, tracking him by helicopter and shelling his car, also killing 2 Palestinian bystanders, wounding his aide and at least 6 bystanders. A new wave of assassinations against palestinian leaders has started. Over the next 6 years 500 palestinian leaders are assassinated by Israel, and 1 israeli minister is assassinated by palestinians. The US does not condemn the new israeli policy.

During the month Israel uses aircraft and helicopters with bombs and missiles to attack refugee camps, palestinan towns, PSF barracks, and official palestinian buildings.

In response to israeli violence, palestinians start to use roadside bombs against IDF troops and settlers, and carbombs inside Israel. The bombs have a limited effect. Most israelis killed are troops killed in action.


Israeli actions Negotiations Palestinian actions
Every is one palestinian killed by israeli action   Every is one israeli killed by palestinian action

Israeli-Palestinian clashes increase sharply, leaving 3 IDF soldiers dead, 4 wounded in gunfights with Palestinians and 6 Palestinians dead, 140 wounded by the IDF. Barak orders missile attacks on the PSF training center nr. Jericho, Jericho's Oasis Casino, a marble factory in Bethlehem, residential areas around Bayt Jala and Bethlehem. The IDF also directs fire fr. tanks, heavy machine guns, grenade launchers at Palestinian residential areas in Bayt Jala, Bayt Sahur, Bethlehem, Beitunia, Jericho, al-Khadir, Mentar crossing, Tulkarm. Jewish settlers shoot, seriously wound 2 Palestinians nr. Nablus; open fire on Palestinian homes in al-Khadir. Israel, however, reopens the Rafah border crossing to individuals, though trade is still barred. (ADM, IsRN, LAW, MA [Internet], MM, PCHR 11/1; AFP [Internet], AIC, HA [Internet], NYT, REU, WJW, WP, WT 11/2; MENA 11/2 in WNC 11/3; MEI 11/10)

Following a mtg. with Albright in Washington, Israeli acting FM Ben-Ami says Israel must address the clashes "not as a civilian uprising but as a military confrontation." (PA negotiator Erakat was to have met with Albright as well but could not leave Jericho because of IDF air strikes.) With the violence escalating, MK and fmr. PM Shimon Peres makes a low-key trip to Gaza very late this evening to meet with Arafat. (ADM, IsRN, LAW, MA [Internet], MM, PCHR 11/1; al-Quds, RMC 11/1 in WNC 11/3; AFP [Internet], AIC, HA [Internet], NYT, REU, WJW, WP, WT 11/2; YA 11/5)

A small bomb explodes in West Jerusalem, lightly injuring 2 Israelis.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 2 Palestinians dead, 80 wounded. Nr. Nablus, Jewish settlers uproot a Palestinian olive grove; attack Palestinian cars and property around Hawwara, Hebron, Tulkarm. The IDF confiscates and levels 70 dunams of Palestinian land to build a road linking Morag, Gush Katif settlements. However, Israel acknowledges that PA police are making more of an effort to halt stone throwers; Arafat unequivocally denounces the Islamic Jihad bombing; and Barak phones Arafat to express condolences over today's Palestinian fatalities. In Gaza, the IDF evacuates a position linking Qarni to Netzarim settlement, pulls tanks back fr. main roads. (AFP [Internet], MM, NYT, REU, WP, WT 11/2; JP [Internet], MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/3; MEI 11/10)

While in New York, Israel's Ben-Ami (promoted to FM today) reportedly sets up a public relations (PR) headquarters to aid in Israel's PR efforts in the North America. The office head, fmr. IBA dir. gen. Aryeh Mekel, will coordinate among the FMin.'s PR dept., a special steering comm. of senior officials of U.S. Jewish organizations, and 6 major U.S. PR firms that have been contracted. (MA [Internet] 11/8; HA [Internet] 11/13)

Israel begins reviewing a project for 4,000 new housing units in Har Homa settlement (Jabal Abu Ghunaym) in East Jerusalem. If approved, the site would be known as Har Homa B, would link Har Homa with Gilo settlement. (al-Quds 11/2 in WNC 11/3; LAW 11/4)

Early this morning, Arafat, Peres wrap up talks, and Barak announces that the sides have agreed to try again to implement the 10/17 Sharm al-Shaykh arrangements. The Israeli cabinet suspends punitive attacks on Palestinian targets. Differences quickly arise, however, over plans for Arafat, Barak to issue statements on ending the violence (see Peace Monitor). As the sides discuss how to resolve their differences, 2 Islamic Jihad activists detonated a car bomb in West Jerusalem, killing 2 Israelis, wounding 9. (AFP [Internet], MM, NYT, REU, WP, WT 11/2; ATL, Interfax, MENA, XIN 11/2 in WNC 11/3; ATL, Cyprus News Agency 11/2, MENA, al-Quds 11/4, al-Quds 11/5 in WNC 11/6; JP [Internet], MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/3; MM 11/6; MEI 11/10)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes abate slightly but leave 2 Palestinians dead, over 275 injured (mostly in Ramallah). The IDF pulls back fr. some Palestinian towns, says the PA is attempting to calm the street. But Israel again restricts Palestinian access to al-Aqsa Mosque for Friday prayers. The IDF shells areas nr. Bethlehem in response to Palestinian machine gun fire; demolishes 2 Palestinian homes, bulldozes 27 dunams of agricultural land in Rafah. (AFP [Internet], LAW, PCHR 11/3; NYT, WP, WT 11/4; WP, WT 11/5)

In Washington, PA negotiator Erakat meets with Albright. Israel's Ben-Ami meets with UN Secy.-Gen. Annan in New York and with U.S. officials in Washington, but there is no indication that he and Erakat meet. (JP [Internet] 11/3; NYT 11/4; MENA 11/4 in WNC 11/6; IsRN 11/5) (see 11/1)

Large anti-Israeli demonstrations are held in Bahrain. In the U.S., a rally in support of the Palestinians is held in Boulder. (Bahrain Freedom Movement press release 11/5)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue at the same level as in recent days, leaving at least 87 Palestinians injured (almost half by live ammunition). In Hebron, where Palestinians have been under 24 hr. curfew since 10/1, the IDF refuses to allow a Palestinian family to transfer their ill newborn to the hospital, allowing her to die. Jewish settler attacks on Palestinians and their property are reported in Hebron, nr. Bethlehem and Nablus, and throughout Jerusalem. (ADM, LAW 11/4; AYM 11/6 in WNC 11/9; WP, WT 11/5)

In Tel Aviv, 50,000 Israelis attend a rally marking the 5th anniversary of the assassination of PM Yitzhak Rabin. In comparison to previous yrs., fewer people attend and the event is less a peace rally and more a memorial. (NYT, WP 11/5; MM 11/8; WJW 11/9; JP 11/10)


Another antigovernment/anti-Israeli/anti-U.S. rally is held in Mauritania. In the U.S., rallies in support of the Palestinian people are held in Carlisle, PA; North Bergen, NJ. (Free Arab Voice [Internet] 11/14)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify slightly, leaving 2 Palestinians dead. (IsRN, MEZ 11/5; LAW, NYT, WP 11/6; HJ 11/6 in WNC 11/7; AYM 11/6 in WNC 11/9)

The White House announces that Arafat, Barak have accepted invitations to meet with Pres. Clinton in Washington--Arafat on 11/9, Barak on 11/12. (XIN 11/5 in WNC 11/6; HJ, IRNA 11/5, AYM, DUS, al-Quds 11/6 in WNC 11/7; MM, NYT, WP 11/6)

Palestinians ambush a car outside Ma'ale Levona settlement nr. Ramallah, injuring 2 Jewish settlers.

The NIHC issues leaflets in the West Bank and Gaza, calling on Palestinians to focus their confrontation on IDF soldiers and Jewish settlers, to form local committees to organize mass activities, to boycott Israeli and U.S. goods. (HJ 11/6 in WNC 11/7)

At Fatima Gate, 100s of Lebanese throw stones across the blue line at IDF troops, who fire warning shots in return, causing no injuries. Rallies in support of the Palestinians are held in Ottawa, outside Senate candidate Lazio's campaign headquarters in Babylon, NY. (AFP [Internet] 11/5, 11/10)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 2 Palestinians dead; a 3d Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The IDF searches homes in villages around Bethlehem, arrests 3 Palestinians; directs tank, heavy machine gun fire at residential areas of Aqabat Jabir camp, Jericho, Salfit. Jewish settlers assault Palestinians, damage property in Hebron, nr. Jinin. (LAW 11/6; ADM, IDF Radio [Internet], NYT, WP 11/7)

With Shas support, Barak survives 5 no-confidence motions in the Knesset. (AFP [Internet] 11/6)

Israel leaks reports that the U.S. has raised the idea of posting international observers as a buffer in the West Bank, Gaza. Barak denounces the proposal. Clinton states the U.S. will not endorse it if Israelis are opposed. Ben-Ami says he has already met with Albright, Holbrooke to coordinate steps to block the proposal in the UN. (MM 11/6; NYT, WP, WT 11/7; AYM 11/7 in WNC 11/8; NYT, WP 11/8; MEI 11/10)

IDF troops capture a man armed with knives sneeking into the Israeli occupied Golan Heights fr. Syria. (NYT 11/7)

In Tehran, 1,000 Iranian students attend a rally in solidarity with the Palestinian people. A much smaller rally is held in Baltimore. (IRNA 11/6 in WNC 11/7)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 1 Palestinian dead, 150 injured. A 2d Palestinian dies of wounds received earlier. Jewish settlers block roads, attack Palestinians, damage property in Hebron and nr. Nablus, Rafah, Tulkarm. The IDF shells areas of Bayt Jala in response to Palestinian sniping at Gilo settlement. IDF chief of staff Mofaz says the IDF is preparing contingencies for the evacuation of all 7,000 Jewish settlers in Gaza. Barak allows the Gaza airport, closed since 10/22, to reopen. (ADM, LAW 11/7; al-Quds 11/7 in WNC 11/9; NYT, WP 11/8)

In keeping with the 10/17 Sharm agmts., the White House names fmr. senator George Mitchell (D-ME) to lead an inquiry into the causes of the Israeli-Palestinian clashes. Also named to the panel are fmr. Turkish pres. Suleyman Demirel, Norwegian FM Thorbjoern Jagland, fmr. senator Warren B. Rudman (R-NH), EU foreign policy dir. Solana. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/8; AYM 11/9 in WNC 11/13; MEI 11/24)

Off Gaza, a fishing boat laden with explosives detonates nr. an Israeli patrol ship, killing the suicide bomber.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, especially in Gaza. 4 Palestinians are killed by IDF troops, 2 others die of injuries received earlier. At Qarni crossing, a gun battle erupts btwn. IDF troops, PA police; the IDF shells a building "used as cover" by the policemen. IDF tank, heavy machine gun fire is reported in Aida refugee camp, Bayt Jala, Bayt Sahur, Beitunia, al-Bireh, Hebron, Salfit; in Bayt Jala, 1 house is completely destroyed, 6 homes and a school are damaged. The IDF also uproots a Palestinian olive grove in Qalqilya. (al-Haq press release, LAW, MM, PCHR 11/8; ADM, NYT, WP, WT 11/9; al-Quds 11/9 in WNC 11/13)

Under pressure fr. Israeli Arab MKs, Barak upgrades the inquiry comm. into the deaths of Israeli Arabs during the recent clashes to a state commission, which has more authority. (NYT, WP 11/9) (see 10/22)

Arafat flies to Cairo to confer with Mubarak, EU special envoy Moratinos and then goes to London to meet with British PM Blair before heading to Washington. After meeting with Arafat, Moratinos leaves for a 2-day visit to Israel. (LPA, MENA 11/8 in WNC 11/9; MENA 11/8 in WNC 11/13; WP 11/9)

UN Human Rights Commissioner (UNHRC) Mary Robinson begins a 1-wk. tour of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Egypt, Jordan to investigate the recent Israeli-Palestinian violence. (AP 11/8; NYT, WP 11/9; WP 11/11; al-Quds 11/11 in WNC 11/13; WP 11/28) (see Doc. A7)

The UNSC holds a closed-door mtg. on the ongoing clashes, the PA's request for international forces. The mtg. is adjourned until 11/10, so Arafat may address the council. (XIN 11/8 in WNC 11/9; SA 11/8 in WNC 11/13; MM, NYT, WT 11/9; MEI 11/10)

1 Israeli customs official is ambushed and killed in Gaza (both Fatah Uprising, Islamic Jihad claim responsibility). Blaming Arafat for the ambush, Barak shuts the Gaza airport and the Rafah border crossing to Egypt, reportedly sends more tanks and armored vehicles into the West Bank and Gaza.

Just before Arafat meets with Clinton in Washington, Israel assassinates senior Fatah cmdr. Hussayn Ubayyat in Bayt Sahur, tracking him by helicopter and shelling his car, also killing 2 Palestinian bystanders, wounding his aide and at least 6 bystanders. After their mtg., neither Arafat nor Clinton express hope that Israeli-Palestinian clashes will end soon; the U.S. does not condemn the Israeli attack. (ADM, BDL, LAW, MM, REU 11/9; JT 11/9, AFP, al-Quds 11/10, 11/11, AYM, al-Quds 11/12 in WNC 11/13; MA [Internet], MM, NYT, WP, WT, YA 11/10; AYM, HJ 11/13 in WNC 11/16; MM 11/15; MEI 11/24)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue throughout the day. In addition to the fatalities fr. the Ubayyat assassination, a 4th Palestinian is shot dead by the IDF. In nr. Rafah, the IDF bulldozes 100s of dunams of agricultural land, demolishes 2 Palestinian homes, evacuates a 3d to create a new IDF outpost. The IDF also clears lands around the main road of Nazlit Issa village nr. Tulkarm, demolishes several greenhouses nr. Jinin. Jewish settlers set fire to 100 dunams of Palestinian crops outside Qalqilya, attack Palestinians and Palestinian property in Hebron and around Jinin. IDF heavy machine gun fire is reported around Hebron, Jinin, Nablus. (ADM 11/9; NYT, WP, WT 11/10)


Qatar shuts the Israeli trade mission in Doha. (MM, SA, TT 11/9, IRNA, SA 11/10, HJ, IRNA 11/11 in WNC 11/13; MM, NYT 11/10; WJW 11/16; JP 11/17; JP, MEI 11/24)

More than 1,000 Palestinians hold an anti-Israeli demonstration in Wihdat camp in Jordan. In the U.S., a rally in support of the Palestinians is held in New York. (AFP [Internet] 11/10)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 5 Palestinians, 1 Israeli Arab, 1 IDF soldier dead, 300 Palestinians injured. More than 50 IDF shells fall in the Ramallah area, hitting the PA civil administration building, the PA Central Bureau of Statistics headquarters, the Islamic Elementary School, several apartment complexes and homes. IDF tank, heavy machine gun fire are reported in and around Hebron, Jinin, Khan Yunis, Nablus, Qalqilya, Salfit. The IDF also bulldozes agricultural lands nr. Qalqilya. Jewish settlers uproot Palestinian olive trees nr. Ramallah, assault Palestinians in several locations around Nablus. Israel again restricts Palestinian access to al-Aqsa Mosque for Friday prayers. Egypt reports that Israel is barring medical goods, 30 ambulances donated by Saudi Arabia fr. entering Gaza via the Rafah crossing. (ADM, LAW 11/10; MENA 11/10 in WNC 11/13; NYT, PCHR, WP 11/11; HJ 11/15 in WNC 11/27)

UNSC resumes talks on an international buffer force for the West Bank, Gaza. Arafat lobbies for the UN to send 2,000 troops to the West Bank, Gaza, Jerusalem. The UK, U.S. vow to block the proposal as long as Israel disapproves. (XIN 11/10 in WNC 11/13; NYT, WP, WT 11/11; HJ 11/13 in WNC 11/15)

Following the funeral for Fatah cmdr. Ubayyat (attended by 10,000 Palestinians), a Palestinian sniper fires on IDF troops outside Rachel's Tomb nearby, killing 1 soldier, wounding another. A small bomb explodes in East Jerusalem, slightly injuring an Israeli border policeman.

In Amman, Jordanian security forces peacefully disperse 1,000 Jordanians attempting to march to the Israeli emb. 100s of Lebanese, Palestinian refugees demonstrate at Fatima Gate on the blue line. The IDF shoots across the border, wounding a Lebanese truck driver approaching the border with a load of stones. (AFP [Internet] 11/10; DUS 11/10 in WNC 11/13; MEI 11/24)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 11 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier dead and over 200 Palestinians, 1 IDF soldier, 1 American wounded. 8 Palestinians and 1 IDF soldier are killed during a gun battle outside Gush Katif settlement in Gaza; the IDF confirms that the soldier is killed by IDF gunfire, 6 of Palestinians are likely killed by settler gunfire. Nr. Rachel's Tomb, an American photographer is seriously wounded by live ammunition fired by the IDF. The IDF shells an unfinished building al-Bireh, killing 2 Fatah mbrs. The 11th Palestinian is fatally shot at Erez crossing. 3 Palestinians die of injuries received earlier. IDF shelling, heavy machine gun fire is reported in Hebron, Nablus. The IDF clears more Palestinian land in the Rafah area. (LAW, PCHR 11/11; LAW, MEZ, NYT, WP, WT 11/12; MA 11/13 in WNC 11/14; NYT 11/19)


An OIC summit opens in Qatar, focusing on the Palestinian situation. (ATL, MENA, RL 11/11, ATL, AYM, IRNA, MENA 11/12 in WNC 11/13; WP 11/12; HA [Internet], MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/13; IRNA, MENA, RL 11/13 in WNC 11/14; ATL, AYM 11/13, Iraq News Agency, DUS 11/14 in WNC 11/16; MM, NYT, WP 11/14; MM 11/15, 11/16; WP 11/22; JP, MEI 11/24)

In Rome, 30,000 Italians protest against Israel's "massacre of innocent Palestinians." Similar, smaller rallies are held in Oslo, Stockholm. (ANSA 11/11 in WNC 11/13; IsraelWire [Internet] 11/12, 11/13)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue. 1 Palestinian is shot dead by the IDF at Erez crossing. A 2d Palestinian, suspected of aiding the Ubayyat assassination on 11/9, is shot dead by a Palestinian gunman. A 3d Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. 2 Egyptians are wounded by Israeli gunfire at the Rafah border. The convoy of UNHRC Robinson is fired on as she tours Hebron's Jewish enclave, damaging 1 vehicle. IDF tank fire, shelling are reported in and around Bayt Jala, Bayt Sahur, Bethlehem, Jericho, al-Khadir, Ramallah; the Jericho casino is severely damaged. A Jewish settler opens fire on Palestinians, wounding 1. (AFP [Internet] 11/12; HA [Internet], NYT, WP, WT 11/13; MM 11/15)

The Clinton-Barak mtg. in Washington is delayed several hrs. when a Russian plane is hijacked to Israel in an incident unrelated to the Middle East crisis. When the pair finally meet, they make no progress toward halting the violence. Barak reportedly tells Clinton that Israel will not "sit idly on its hands" in the face of Palestinian actions, complains that the PA is trying to internationalize the conflict by getting the UN involved. Barak also raises the issues of supplemental U.S. aid, upgrading the U.S.-Israeli strategic relationship. (NYT, WP, WT 11/12; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/13; HJ 11/14 in WNC 11/16; MM 11/15)


In Gaza, several roadside bombs explode, causing no injuries;


Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 2 Palestinians dead. A 3d Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. IDF shelling is reported Aqabat Jabir camp, Bayt Jala, Bethlehem, Jericho, Nablus, al-Qarara. In Gaza, the IDF levels another 112 dunams of Palestinian agricultural land, 1 Palestinian home, a livestock pen, and an irrigation system. (AP, LAW, MM, PCHR 11/13; LAW, MEZ, MM, NYT, WP 11/14; NYT 11/15; WJW 11/16, 11/23)

Barak, attending a fund-raiser in Chicago for the United Jewish Communities General Assembly (UJCGA), lists 5 requirements of any final status agmt. with the PA (see Doc. C2). More than 1,000 Americans rally outside the UJCGA venue to protest Israeli violence against the Palestinians. Similar rallies are held in New York, where Likud MK Sharon is addressing a New York Post seminar, and in Philadelphia. (WP 11/14; WJW 11/16)

With Shas support, Barak survives another no-confidence vote in the Knesset. (AFP [Internet] 11/13) (see 11/6)

  In Gaza, Palestinian snipers open fire on a convoy of Jewish settlers under IDF escort, killing 2 IDF soldiers, wounding 6 settlers. A Jewish settler driving in the West Bank, an Israeli truck driver carry goods to a Jewish settlement in Gaza are also shot dead by Palestinian snipers, marking the highest 1-day toll for Israeli Jews since clashes began. The IDF seals areas A, halts all traffic on and leading to the main north+nsouth road in Gaza.

As Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, Israel tightens its blockade of Palestinian towns in the West Bank. During the day, 3 Palestinians are shot dead by the IDF. A 4th Palestinian is killed by a Jewish settler. A 5th dies of complications fr. inhaling tear gas when the IDF bars an ambulance fr. taking him to a hospital. A 6th dies of injuries received earlier. Nr. Ramallah, several Palestinians are wounded by Jewish settlers in a drive-by shooting. Beginning this evening and continuing overnight, IDF troops search, ransack at least 20 homes in area B nr. Nablus, Qalqilya, and Ramallah, arresting 15 Fatah mbrs. "suspected of carrying out terrorist attacks." Nr. Qalqilya, the IDF bulldozes several greenhouses. (EU press release, LAW, MEZ 11/14; MENA 11/14 in WNC 11/16; LAW, MEZ, NYT, WP, WT 11/15; MA [Internet], MM, NYT 11/16; AYM 11/16 in WNC 11/17)

Lebanon reports that IDF overflew Baalbek, Bint Jubayl, Iqlim al-Tuffah, Marja'uyun, Nabatiyya and reinforced troops in the Shaba` Farms area. UNIFIL adviser Timur Goksel says UNIFIL recorded 123 Israeli violations of Lebanese airspace btwn. 10/8 and 11/8, has protested to Israel to no avail. (AFP [Internet] 11/14; RL 11/14 in WNC 11/16)

The Clinton administration submits to Congress a request for a $750 m. supplemental aid package for Israel, Egypt, Jordan. (WP 11/15; HA [Internet], WJW 11/16)


In a closed mtg., Arafat tells his security officials to prevent individuals fr. firing fr. areas A and Palestinian populated areas so as to reduce civilian casualties resulting fr. Israeli reprisals.

In Doha, the OIC issues a special nonbinding resolution on the clashes, urging mbrs. to cut ties with Israel; the U.S. to revise its "biased stance" in favor of Israel; the UN to send a peacekeeping force in the West Bank, Gaza. (MA [Internet], MM, OIC press release 11/14; AYM, IRNA 11/14 in WNC 11/15; MENA 11/14 in WNC 11/16; MM 11/15, 11/16; IRNA 11/16 in WNC 11/17; MM 11/17; JP, MEI 11/24)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 8 Palestinians, 1 German doctor dead, over 110 Palestinians injured. (1 Palestinian dies en route to the hospital when his ambulance is blocked by Jewish settlers for over an hr.) A 9th Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The IDF shells Fatah headquarters in Hebron, Salfit, Tulkarm and an armory in Jericho. The IDF also shells residential areas of Bayt Jala, Bethlehem, Dayr al-Balah, Nablus, Tulkarm and bulldozes Palestinian agricultural lands in Rafah. IDF shelling in Bayt Jala damages a school and a cultural center, destroys an unfinished apartment complex. In Hebron, Jewish settlers vandalize Palestinian property, uproot trees, damage an irrigation system. (ADM, LAW 11/15; AP, HA [Internet], LAW, MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/16; NYT, WP 11/17)

First Lady Hillary Clinton (the senator-elect fr. NY), U.S. special envoy Ross, Russian FM Ivanov are among those who attend the funeral of PM Yitzhak Rabin's widow, Leah Rabin, who died on 11/12. Arafat sends his condolences via video tape, which is aired on Israeli TV. Afterward, Ross meets with Barak. (MA [Internet], MM 11/15; MM, NYT, WJW, WP, WT 11/16; JP 11/24)

Senior Israeli, PA officials reportedly hold a secret mtg. at the Egyptian mission to the UN in New York to discuss options for a UN buffer force in the West Bank, Gaza. (WP 11/16, 11/18)

In Marseilles, France, a 2-day Euro-Mediterranean FMs mtg. opens to review regional cooperation efforts over the past 5 yrs. The session focuses on the Israeli-Palestinian crisis as it affects regional stability. (AFP [Internet], JT [Internet] 11/15; see also JT 11/13 in WNC 11/14; AYM 11/14 in WNC 11/15; SA 11/15, ANSA, ATL 11/16 in WNC 11/17) (see Doc. A6)

A demonstration in support of the Palestinians is held at New York University, where 2 IDF soldiers speak as part of a national tour to present the Israeli position on the ongoing clashes. (al-Awda Internet news group 11/15)

On the anniversary of the PLO's 1988 declaration of independence in Algiers, the PA does not unilaterally declare a Palestinian state or reaffirm the Algiers declaration as Israel, the U.S. had feared. Due to the ongoing closure, the PLOCC is unable to meet as planned. (AP 11/15) (see 9/10)

In Lebanon, PM Hariri, Hizballah spiritual leader Shaykh Hassan Nasrallah hold their 1st in 8 yrs. during which they reportedly agreed not to give Israel a pretext to strike Lebanon while upholding Beirut's right to recover Shaba` Farms, to coordinate efforts to keep the issue of Syria's troop presence in the country out of the public domain. (MM 11/17)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes enter their 50th day, with the internal closure on Palestinian towns in the West Bank still in place. Israeli PM Ehud Barak tells Israelis to prepare for a protracted conflict, threatens to escalate actions against Palestinians. To pressure the Palestinian Authority (PA), Barak suspends plans to transfer $64 m. in taxes and customs duties owed the PA to cover salaries and regular expenses. Overnight, the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) shells Fatah offices in Hebron, Jinin. During the day, IDF troops fatally shoot 4 Palestinians, fire on a Palestinian police station. 1 of the 4 Palestinians dies while the IDF blocks an ambulance crew fr. reaching him for 2 hrs. Inside Israel, Israeli Arabs clash with Israeli police officers nr. Sakhnin, leaving 1 demonstrator slightly injured. IDF West Bank cmdr. Brig. Gen. Benjamin Gantz warns that he "could probably wipe out Bayt Jala in a matter of hrs." Jewish settlers uproot a Palestinian olive grove nr. Ramallah, fire on Palestinian cars nr. Zatariyya Junction, injuring 2. (AFP [Internet], MENL, MM 11/16; LAW, NYT, WP 11/17; AIC 11/20; NYT 1/17) In Gaza, U.S. special envoy Dennis Ross meets with PA head Yasir Arafat to discuss ways of halting the ongoing violence, resuming peace talks. (HA, WP, WT 11/17; MEI 11/24)

Hizballah claims responsibility for setting off a small bomb in the disputed Shaba` Farms area of the Golan Heights, slightly injuring 1 IDF soldier. The UN condemns the attack, expresses concern. (AFP [Internet] 11/16; MM, NYT, YA 11/17; MEI 11/24) (see 11/15)

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 6 Palestinians dead. Barak tightens economic sanctions on the Palestinians, barring any goods other than food or medicine, including fuel, fr. reaching the PA areas. Israel again bars Palestinians under age 45 fr. attending Friday prayers at al-Aqsa Mosque. The IDF shells residential areas of Ramallah, destroying an empty building. Jewish settlers uproot a Palestinian olive grove nr. Nablus, throw stones at Palestinian cars nr. Nablus, Qalqilya, Ramallah. (HA, LAW, MEZ 11/17; NYT, WP, WT 11/18; MA [Internet], YA 11/19; al-Quds 11/19, 11/20 in WNC 11/21; AIC, JT [Internet], MEZ 11/20)   Arafat publicly orders Palestinian gunmen to stop shooting at Israelis fr. PA-controlled areas, but there is no sign the order is heeded.
Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue. In Khan Yunis camp, an explosion at a Force 17 building injures 4 Force 17 mbrs.; Israel denies PA claims that the IDF fired a missile at the building. The IDF tightens the closure on Palestinian villages in the West Bank; blocks, digs trenches across secondary roads frequented by Palestinians; bulldozes at least 65 dunams of Palestinian agricultural land along roads, especially in Gaza and nr. Tura in the West Bank. The IDF also demolishes 2 Palestinian brick factories in Gaza. Jewish settlers stone Palestinian cars on the Nablus+nRamallah road. (LAW 11/18; PCHR, NYT, WT 11/19; AIC, MEZ 11/20)   In Gaza, a PA policeman opens fire on an IDF post outside a Jewish settlement, killing 1 IDF soldier, wounding 2, before being shot dead.
With the reinforced closure on Palestinian villages, Israeli-Palestinian clashes abate significantly, although 1 Palestinian is killed. Israel decides not to retaliate for the death of a soldier in Gaza on 11/18. The IDF reinforces barricades and digs trenches across roads at the entrances to al-Bireh, Hebron, Jinin; reinforces hilltop outposts surrounding Bethlehem, Hebron, Jinin, al-Khadir, Nablus, Qalqilya. Armed Jewish settlers chase off Palestinians harvesting their olive groves nr. Tubas. Other settlers uproot Palestinian-owned olive trees nr. Keddumim settlement; open fire on Palestinian cars nr. Nablus, injuring 1. (LAW 11/19; ADM, AIC, NYT, WP, WT 11/20)   In Jordan, an Israeli emb. official is shot, wounded in an apparent assassination attempt. (MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/20; Tehran Times 11/21 in WNC 11/22; WP 12/6; AFP 12/6 in WNC 12/8)

Lebanese protesters throw stones at IDF troops across the blue line, the UN nonborder separating the 2 countries. IDF troops fire across the blue line into the crowd, injuring 1 protester. (NYT 11/20; MEI ll/24)

Antinormalization Comm. of the Union of Professional Associations in Jordan releases its blacklist of 22 Jordanian individuals, companies that have advocated normalization with Israel; urges Jordanians to boycott those on the list. (AP 11/19; NYT 11/22; WJW 11/23; MEI 12/22) (see Peace Monitor)

Although the Arafat denounces the bombing in Gaza, Barak blames Arafat and Fatah directly, convenes his security cabinet, and orders IDF helicopter gunships, naval vessels to shell at least 12 buildings in Gaza City (including Arafat's Fatah and PA headquarters, PA Preventive Security Force offices, Force 17 offices, Voice of Palestine Radio, a Palestinian TV station), killing 2 Palestinians, injuring 125, hitting 4 private homes, and cutting power to areas of the city. Other helicopter gunships target areas nr. Rafah. Nr. Kefar Darom and in Ramallah, the IDF razes 10s of dunams of Palestinian orchards along the roads so Palestinians will have "no place to hide." A 3d Palestinian is shot dead by the IDF in the West Bank. Jewish settlers fire on Palestinians harvesting an olive grove nr. Salfit, injuring several Palestinians; uproot an olive grove nr. Qalqilya; fire on Palestinian cars nr. Jinin, injuring 1. (ADM, HA, LAW, MEZ, MM 11/20; RMC 11/20 in WNC 11/21; HA, MEZ, NYT, WP, WT 11/21; Interfax, MA, XIN 11/21 in WNC 11/22; HJ 11/21, AYM 11/22 in WNC 11/24; NYT, WP 11/22; MEI, MM 11/24; AYM 11/24 in WNC 11/29; MENL 11/29)

The State Dept. for the 1st time since 9/28 states that "Israelis also need to understand that the excessive use of force is not the right way to go." Special envoy Ross postpones a visit to the region set to begin today. (NYT, WP, WT 11/21; MM 11/22)

Following the Kefar Darom attack, Shas declares it will not renew Barak's "safety net," which it agreed to provide until the end of 11/00. With Shas's support, Barak has survived no-confidence motions since the Knesset reconvened on 10/30. (AFP [Internet] 11/20) (see 11/13)

  Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify when Palestinians detonate a large roadside bomb nr. Gaza's Kefar Darom settlement as an armored school bus escorted by IDF troops passes. 2 Jewish settlers, both adults, are killed and 9 are wounded, including children.
Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 5 Palestinians dead. A 6th Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The IDF demolishes a nearby abandoned PA Preventive Security Force (PSF) post thought to be the source of the gunfire. IDF helicopter gunships, tanks shell residential areas of Dayr al-Balah (targeting the home of senior PSF official Ahmad `Abd al-Karim), Jericho, Khan Yunis, Nablus, al-Shaykh, Tulkarm. Jewish settlers fire on Palestinian homes in Huwarra (nr. Nablus), in Kafr Deek (nr. Salfit). The IDF bulldozes 60 dunams of Palestinian land along setter bypass roads nr. Kefar Darom, 10s of dunams of olive groves nr. Salfit, a Palestinian road and water network in Ramallah. (ADM, LAW, MM 11/21; AFP, MENA 11/21 in WNC 11/22; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/22; SA 11/22 in WNC 11/24; HJ 11/22 in WNC 11/29; MEI 11/24; WJW 11/30)

Israel informs the U.S. it will delay the start of the Mitchell Comm.'s investigation into the causes of the al-Aqsa intifada because "the timing is wrong." (MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/22; ATL 11/22 in WNC 11/24; MEI 11/24; WJW 11/30) (see Peace Monitor)

  A Palestinian sniper fatally shoots a Jewish settler driving through Gaza.

In protest over Israel's 11/20 shelling of PA offices, Egypt recalls Amb. Muhammad Bassyouni but does not suspend diplomatic relations. (MM 11/21; AFP, MENA 11/21 in WNC 11/22; MENA 11/21, MENA 11/22, HJ, MENA, al-Quds, SA 11/23 in WNC 11/24; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/22; MEI 11/24; MENA 11/25 in WNC 11/29; MM 11/27; JP 12/1; SA 1/22 in WNC 1/23)


Israeli-Palestinian clashes intensify, leaving 9 Palestinians dead, including senior Fatah official Jamal `Abd al-Razik, whose car is ambushed and strafed by IDF troops. Although Arafat denounces the bombing, Barak blames the PA, vows Israel will "get even," convenes his security cabinet to discus how to respond; the cabinet recesses without taking a decision. The IDF sends more tanks into Gaza; dismantles the vegetable market in Hebron; bulldozes Palestinian land in Bayt Lahia, Dayr al-Balah, Hebron, Nablus; demolishes several homes nr. Kefar Darom, Gush Katif; takes over a home in Ajja for use as a new base. The IDF directs shells, heavy machine gun fire on residential areas of al-Bireh, Rafah (destroying 1 home, damaging 2). Jewish settlers bulldoze Palestinian land and set fire to 2 factories in Tura al-Sharqiyya; bulldoze land nr. Qalqilya, Salfit; fire on Palestinians nr. Jinin; attack Palestinians in Bayt Ilo, Bayt Rimia, Dayr `Amar, Qalqilya. The PSF successfully removes explosive devices found in schools in Balata camp, Nablus. (ADM, LAW, MEZ, MM 11/22; AFP 11/22 in WNC 11/24; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/23; NYT, WP 11/24; MA, al-Quds 11/24 in WNC 11/29; Independent [Internet], JP 12/7; PCHR 12/18; WJW 12/28)

In response to the Hadera bombing, 10,000s of Israeli attend a "Let the Army Win!" rally in Jerusalem's Zion Square, calling for revenge attacks on Palestinian targets, tougher military action against the Palestinians. (AFP [Internet] 11/22; MM, NYT, WP 11/23; MEI 11/24; WP 11/27; MM 11/28)

At an emergency session of the UN Security Council (UNSC) in New York, Egyptian, Palestinian envoys call for international protection for the Palestinians. The U.S. says the emergency session, the call for international observers are inappropriate, unhelpful. (MM 11/22; JT, XIN 11/22, MENA 11/23 in WNC 11/24; MM 11/30)

The UN Economic and Social Council adopts (21-19 with 11 abstentions) a resolution by the UN Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) ordering an investigation of Israeli violations of Palestinian human rights during the recent clashes. (MM 11/30)

  Hrs. later after the IDF attack, a remote-controlled car bomb explodes during rush hr. in Hadera, Israel, killing 2 Israelis, injuring 60.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving at least 2 Palestinians dead, including Hamas mbr. Ibrahim Bani Odeh, who dies when a car bomb rigged by the IDF explodes in Nablus. The 2d Palestinian is shot dead by the IDF in Gaza after a roadside bomb detonates nr. an IDF patrol. The IDF shells residential areas nr. Rafah border terminal, destroying 1 Palestinian home. (LAW 11/23; LAW, NYT, WP, WT 11/24; HA 12/1; WJW 12/28)

Barak's security cabinet continues discussions on how to respond to the 11/22 Hadera bombing, rejects a list of Palestinian targets for retaliatory strikes, arguing that air strikes have had little deterrent effect on the Palestinians while damaging Israel's public image, that Israel should switch to "precision operations against specific targets." Following the DCO bombing today, Israel evicts PSF officers fr. all DCOs, officially severing all security coordination. Later, however, senior PA and Israeli security officials meet at Erez to discuss ways of halting further escalation of violence. (MM 11/23; MENA 11/23 in WNC 11/24; MA [Internet], NYT, WP, WT, YA 11/24; al-Quds 11/26 in WNC 11/29)

  Palestinian gunmen open fire on an IDF post in Gaza, killing 1 IDF soldier. A 2d IDF soldier is killed when a bomb explodes at a District Coordination Office (DCO) in Gaza, where PA-Israeli joint patrols are based.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 5 Palestinian dead, including senior DFLP mbr. Firas Qasim Saba'na, who is assasinated by IDF troops in Jinin. A 6th Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The IDF also shells a Palestinian hotel in Bethlehem "to flush out gunmen." The IDF bulldozes 18 dunams of Palestinian land nr. Kefar Darom settlement, 35 dunams nr. Netzarim settlement. For the 7th straight wk., Israel bars Palestinians under 45 fr. attending Friday prayers at al-Aqsa Mosque. The IDF says that since 11/22, it has arrested 119 West Bank Palestinians suspected of throwing stones, Molotov cocktails. (AP, LAW 11/24; LAW, NYT, WP, WT 11/25; IsraelWire [Internet] 11/26; PCHR 12/18)

Arafat and Barak agree to resume security coordination during a 3-way phone conversation arranged by Russian pres. Vladimir Putin. Arafat, who is in Moscow on a 1-day visit to meet with Putin, suggests Russia convene a Madrid-style international conference on the peace process, but Barak rejects the idea. (Interfax, ITAR-TASS 11/24, ITAR-TASS 11/25, HJ, SA 11/26 in WNC 11/29; NYT, REU, WP, WT 11/25; AFP [Internet], MA [Internet] 11/26)

This evening, senior PA and Israeli security officials hold more coordination talks, agree to allow PSF officers back into DCOs. (AYM 11/24, HJ 11/26 in WNC 11/29)

In Gaza, clashes erupt when the IDF attempts to remove a roadblock outside Khan Yunis. When the IDF responds to stone throwers with heavy weapons, PA police and Palestinian gunmen fire back, killing 1 IDF soldier. Palestinian gunmen fatally shoot a Jewish settler in the West Bank.
Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving 4 Palestinians dead. In Gaza, IDF shells hit 2 ambulances, wounding 2 Palestinian Health Min. employees. The IDF bulldozes farm land nr. Hebron and directs tank, heavy machine gun fire at residential areas of Aida camp, Bayt Hanun, Bayt Lahia (damaging 5 Palestinian homes, a water pump), Biqr al-Hummus, Jinin, Khan Yunis, Sudaniyya, Yatta. Jewish settlers severely beat an ambulance driver nr. Nablus; assault Palestinians in 6 villages in the Nablus area. Overnight, the IDF captures an armed Palestinian crossing into the West Bank fr. Jordan. Israel allows PSF officers to return to DCOs but complains that they are not actively coordinating. In Gaza, Arafat meets with Israeli tourism M Shahak to discuss security cooperation. (ADM, LAW 11/25; LAW, NYT, WP, WT 11/26; MA 11/26 in WNC 11/29; NYT, WP YA 11/27; HJ 11/27 in WNC 11/29; WP 11/28)  

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue. Nr. Qalqilya, IDF snipers fatally shoot 4 Palestinians (each hit 4+n11 times). A 5th Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. The IDF shells residential areas in Khan Yunis, damaging 1 home. The IDF also bulldozes 10s of dunams of Palestinian land nr. Dugit settlement, Kefar Darom settlement, Kissufim crossing (destroying 1 home, damaging another), Netzarim Junction, Rafah crossing (destroying 4 storerooms, 6 irrigation systems, 1 well serving 50 families). (LAW 11/26; LAW, NYT, PCHR, WP, WT 11/27; PCHR 12/18)

After 19 days of recounting votes, Florida certifies Texas gov. George W. Bush as winner of the 11/7 presidential elections in the state, giving him the electoral college votes to become president. Lawyers for Democratic rival, VP Al Gore, plan to challenge the Florida certification, which will drag out the process for at least a wk. (NYT, WP, WT 11/27; MEI 12/22)

Israel responds to Hizballah attack with airstrikes, artillery and machine gun fire on Hizballah targets in s. Lebanon, wounding 1 Lebanese civilian. (IDF Radio [Internet] 11/26; MM, NYT, WP, WT, YA 11/27; MM 11/28; MEI 12/8; WP 1/30)

In Cairo, PA, Israeli security officials hold mtgs. on halting the clashes. (YA 11/27)











Hizballah detonates a roadside bomb nr. an IDF convoy in the Shaba` Farms area of the Golan Heights, killing 1 soldier, injuring 2.


On this 1st day of Ramadan, Israeli-Palestinian clashes abate; 1 Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. In response, Israel eases restrictions on the passage of goods, fuel through Qarni crossing. The IDF opens heavy machine gun fire on Bayt Jala in response to Palestinian sniping toward the neighboring Jewish settlement of Gilo. IDF tanks fire on residential areas of Aida, Bayt Jala, Hebron. Jewish settlers bulldoze 40 dunams of Palestinian crop land nr. Khan Yunis. The IDF bulldozes 68 dunams of land, including 2 homes, nr. Netzarim Junction. (PCHR 11/27; LAW, MA [Internet], WP, WT 11/28; AYM 11/28 in WNC 11/29; PCHR 12/18)

The IDF completes an inquiry into the fatal shooting of 12-yr.-old Muhammad al-Dura in Gaza on 9/30, concluding that it was "quite plausible" that he was killed by PA gunfire. The PA, the France 2 cameraman who taped the incident reject the report. (NYT, WP, WT 11/28; AYM 11/28 in WNC 12/1; WJW 11/30; MM 12/8)

  The PA announces it has arrested 2 Hamas mbrs. in connection with the 11/22 Hadera car bombing.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue to abate, though 2 Palestinians are killed and a 3d Palestinian dies of injuries received earlier. To mark Ramadan, Israel partially reopens Rafah crossing, says it will transfer some of the money owed the PA. The IDF shells residential areas of Aida, Bayt Jala, Hebron, Khan Yunis, and Rafah, injuring 30 Palestinians; bulldozes around 150 dunams of Palestinian agricultural land nr. Gush Katif settlement, Khan Yunis, Kissufim crossing, and Qarni crossing in Gaza, leveling a total of 8 homes, an irrigation network. Jewish settlers set fire to Palestinian crop land nr. Jinin, fire on a PSF post nr. the bypass road to Keddumim settlement. (HA, LAW, MM 11/28; MENA 11/28 in WNC 11/29; JP [Internet], PCHR, WP 11/29; HJ, al-Quds 11/29 in WNC 12/1; WJW 11/30)

The Knesset convenes to vote on 5 no-confidence motions. Expecting to lose the votes given the expiration of Shas's safety net, Barak opens by announcing his willingness to hold new elections as early as spring 2001. MKs overwhelmingly approve the 1st readings of the motions. (AFP [Internet], MM 11/28; MM, NYT, WP, WT 11/29; WJW 11/30; JT 11/30 in WNC 12/1; AYM , al-Quds 11/30 in WNC 12/7; WJW 12/7; MEI 12/8) (see 11/20)

  In Gaza, 2 roadside bombs explode nr. IDF patrols, causing no injuries; after 1 explosion, IDF soldiers open fire on nearby Palestinians, injuring 15.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, killing at least 4 Palestinians. Another 2 Palestinians die of injuries received earlier. The IDF bulldozes over 87 dunams of Palestinian agricultural land nr. Kissufim crossing, Netzarim Junction; opens fire on residential areas of al-Amal, Hebron, Khan Yunis. (LAW, NYT, PCHR, WT 11/30; PCHR 12/18)

Likud MK Ariel Sharon says he will challenge Barak for the premiership, but no Likud mbrs. publicly support him, waiting to see if fmr. Likud PM Benjamin Netanyahu, considered a stronger candidate, also announces. (MM 11/29; NYT, WP, WT 11/30; MM 12/4; JP 12/7; MM 12/8) (see 9/27)

Barak adviser and chief negotiator Gilead Sher makes a low-key trip to Ramallah to meet with Palestinian Council (PC) speaker and senior negotiator Ahmad Qurai`. No details are released. (MA [Internet] 12/12)

Palestinian gunmen critically wound a Jewish settler driving through the West Bank.

Israeli-Palestinian clashes continue, leaving at least 2 Palestinians dead. Nr. Bethlehem, IDF troops fire live ammunition at a Palestinian school, killing 1 student, wounding 10. Nr. Bethlehem, a Jewish settler intentionally hits a Palestinian with his car, killing him. The IDF bulldozes 16 dunams of Palestinian land nr. Netzarim Junction. (LAW 11/30; al-Quds 12/5 in WNC 12/8; PR 12/6; PCHR 12/18)

Barak proposes a sharply scaled-back peace accord that would recognize a Palestinian state on about 30% of the West Bank, plus the 65+n70% of Gaza the PA now controls. The PA rejects the offers as a campaign ploy. (MM 11/30; HA, NYT, WP, WT 12/1; MENA, al-Quds 12/1, MENA 12/2 in WNC 12/7; AYM, al-Quds 12/2, MA 12/6 in WNC 12/8; MEI 12/8)




IDF Israeli Defense Forces

PA Palestinian Authority


Chronology Source Abbreviations

ADM (Addameer--Prisoners Support and Human Rights Association, Ramallah)

AFP (Agence France-Presse, Paris)

AIC (Alternative Information Center, Jerusalem)

AP (Associated Press, Internet)

ATL (Anatolia, Ankara)

AYM (al-Ayyam, Ramallah)

BDL (BADIL Resource Center, Bethlehem)

DUS (al-Dustur, Amman)

FAV (Free Arab Voice, Internet)

HA (Ha'Aretz, Tel Aviv)

HJ (al-Hayat al-Jadida, Ramallah)

HP (Hear Palestine, Washington)

HUR (Hurriyet, Istanbul)

IRNA (Islamic Republic News Agency, Tehran)

IsRN (Israel Radio News, Internet)

JP (Jerusalem Post International Edition, Jerusalem)

JT (Jordan Times, Amman)

LAW (Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment, Jerusalem)

MA (Ma'ariv, Tel Aviv)

MEI (Middle East International, London)

MENA (Middle East News Agency, Cairo)

MENL (Middle East Newsline, Internet)

MEZ (al-Mezan Center for Human Rights, Jabaliyya)

MM (Mideast Mirror, London)

NYT (New York Times, New York)

PCHR (Palestinian Center for Human Rights, Gaza)

PR (Palestine Report, Jerusalem)

QA (al-Quds al-Arabi, London)

REU (Reuters, Internet)

RL (Radio Lebanon, Beirut)

RMC (Radio Monte Carlo, Paris)

SA (al-Sharq al-Awsat, London)

UPI (United Press International, Internet)

WJW (Washington Jewish Week, Rockville, MD)

WNC (World News Connection [Internet], Washington)

WP (Washington Post, Washington)

WT (Washington Times, Washington)

XIN (Xinhua+nNew China News Agency, Beijing)

YA (Yedi'ot Aharonot, Tel Aviv)